Preclinical and clinical examinations of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its tanshinones in ischemic conditions.
Adams JD, Wang R, Yang J, Lien EJ.
Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, 1985 Zonal Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089-9121, USA.
Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae, Laminaceae), danshen, is an annual sage mainly found in China and neighboring countries. The crude drug (dried root) and its preparations are currently used in China to treat patients suffering from heart attack, angina pectoris, stroke and some other conditions. The use of S. miltiorrhiza has been increasing in the management of stroke. Pharmacological examinations showed that the plant and its active ingredients, tanshinones and salvianolic acids, have anticoagulant, vasodilatory, increased blood flow, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging, mitochondrial protective and other activities. This review discusses the pharmacology, medicinal chemistry and clinical studies published, especially in China, for danshen and tanshinone preparations. Clinical examinations are evaluated in terms of S. miltiorrhiza preparation, dose, double blinding, control, clinical assessments of outcomes and other parameters. Meta-analyses of S. miltiorrhiza are also discussed.
Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine
S.P. Lia, , , F.Q. Yanga and Karl W.K. Tsimb
aInstitute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau SAR, China
bDepartment of Biology and Biotechnology Research Institute, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay Road, Hong Kong, China
Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine for heart syndromes, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease. As the rarity and upstanding curative effects of natural Cordyceps, several mycelial strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured in large quantities by fermentation technology, and they are commonly sold as health food products in Asia. In addition, some substitutes such as Cordyceps militaris also have been used and adulterants also confused the market. Therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Herein, markers and analytical methods for quality control of Cordyceps were reviewed and discussed.
Angiogenesis: from plants to blood vessels
Tai-Ping Fana, , Ju-Ching Yeha, b, Kar Wah Leungc, Patrick Y.K. Yued and Ricky N.S. Wongc, d
aAngiogenesis and Traditional Chinese Medicine Laboratory, Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PD, UK
bDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, The Rosie Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2SW, UK
cDepartment of Biology, Science Faculty, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
dHung Lai Ching Laboratory of Biomedical Science, R&D Division, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong
Angiogenesis is a major pathological component of diseases such as cancer and coronary heart disease. Although major advances have been made and encouraging clinical results obtained, safer and more effective approaches are required. The identification of new drugs from plants has a long and successful history, and certain proangiogenic and antiangiogenic plant components have been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. Similar to Western combination therapy, TCM uses mixtures of plant extracts, termed fufang, to maximize efficacy and minimize adverse effects or toxicity. More evidence-based research and chemical optimization of these compounds could further enhance the effectiveness of these plant-based medicines in angiotherapy.
Traditional Chinese Medicine and heart disease: what does Western medicine and nursing science know about it
Patricia Davidsona, b, Karen Hancocka, Dominic Leungc, Esther Angd, Esther Changa, David R. Thompsone and John Daly, , a
a School of Nursing, Family and Community Health (SNFCH), College of Social and Health Sciences (CSHS), University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia
b Western Sydney Area Health Service, Sydney, Australia
c Cardiology Department, Liverpool Hospital, South Western Sydney Area Health Service, Sydney, Australia
d Cardiology Department, The St. George Hospital, South East Health Service, Sydney, Australia
e The Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, PR China
BACKGROUND: Interest in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is growing rapidly beyond China. This interest is driven by a combination of factors including recognition of potential benefits of TCM; dissatisfaction with the traditional Western medical model; an increasing commitment to holistic care and increasing evidence for the interaction of psychological factors and outcomes of disease and treatment and health consumer demand. AIMS: This review article was prompted by the need to understand and interpret the increasing trend towards the use of Traditional Chinese Medicine in heart disease. In particular, this article defines and describes TCM, and analyses implications and challenges for Western health care delivery models. LITERATURE SEARCH: This article provides a review of accessible evidence, to English speaking health care professionals. The CINAHL, MEDLINE, HealthSTAR, Academic ASAP and Cochrane databases were searched, identifying literature published from 1982. Search engines on the Internet were also used. Examples of keywords used were 'Traditional Chinese Medicine' and 'heart'. CONCLUSION: Difficulties in accessing information regarding TCM have implications for health education in coronary heart disease and patient safety. The rapid uptake of TCM in both Western and Chinese societies mandates an understanding of the principles and potential interactions when TCM is complemented with Western medical treatment for heart disease. Development of this knowledge and understanding is essential in order to provide safe and effective health care to patients who use combination therapies.
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